发源太空的可行乍现真的是外星人的信号呢

By admin in 天文台 on 2019年3月11日

编者按:茫茫宇宙中我们有小伙伴吗?人类一向在寻求这么些题材的答案。本文将向你解释为什么来自天空的不测信号大概是外星人发出的。你还将了然不靠燃料驱动的自然界飞船的陈设原理。无论近年来是还是不是真正找到外星人,相信有一天人类早晚发明出载人飞船脱离银系,探索无尽的不解世界。
本文译自《农学人》三月二十五日刊。

天文台 1

太阳帆

Astronomy

Flashes of inspiration

实用乍现

A batch of strange signals from the sky might, just possibly, be signs
of aliens

来自天空的一批奇怪信号大概,只是只怕,是外星人的标志

  1. ON AUGUST 24th 2001 the Parkes Observatory, in Australia, picked up
    an unusual signal. It was a burst of radio waves coming more or less
    from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a miniature galaxy
    that orbits the Milky Way. This burst was as brief as it was potent.
    It lasted less than 5 milliseconds but, during that period, shone
    with the power of 100m suns. It was, though, noticed by astronomers
    only in 2007, when they were poking around in Parkes’s archived
    data. As far as they can tell, it has never been repeated.
    1)二〇〇〇年
    2月2十五日,澳洲的Parker斯天文台探测到二个不平时的信号。这是一阵有线电波的产生,或多或少来自小麦哲伦星云的大方向,该星云是1个在银系的规则上运营的微型星系。此次突发短促而有力。它不断不到5阿秒,但在那短短一弹指,却闪耀着一亿个太阳放射的能量。但是,这一体天史学家2006年才注意到,当时她俩在帕克斯的存档数据中随处搜寻。据他们所知,它再也未重新过。

  2. Similar unrepeated signals have since been noted elsewhere in the
    heavens. So far, 17 such “天文台,fast radio bursts” (FRBs) have been
    recognised. They do not look like anything observed before, and
    there is much speculation about what causes them. One possibility is
    magnetars—highly magnetised, fast-rotating superdense stars.
    Another is a particularly exotic sort of black hole, formed when the
    centrifugal force of a rotating, superdense star proves no longer
    adequate to the task of stopping that star collapsing suddenly under
    its own gravity. But, as Manasvi Lingam of Harvard University and
    Abraham Loeb of the Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics
    observe, there is at least one further possibility: alien
    spaceships.
    2)从那时起类似的不另行的信号在天上中其余地点被注意到。迄今截至,17组这样的“快捷有线电波发生”(FRBs或称为“迅猛射电暴”)已被确认。它们看起来不像在此以前观望到的别的事物,(天历史学界)存在诸多关于其成因的估算。一种大概是磁星——高度磁化、神速旋转的超密星。另一种只怕是一种专门异乎日常的黑洞,是一颗旋转的高密恒星的离心力不足以阻止其在自重力成效下突然倒塌时形成的。然则,正如美利坚合营国加州戴维斯分校高校的马纳斯韦·林加姆和斯坦福-史密森天体物文学中央的阿维·勒布所观望到的,至少有一种其它的大概性:外星人的宇宙飞船。

  3. Specifically, the two researchers suggest, in a paper to be
    published in Astrophysical Journal Letters, that FRBs might be
    generated by giant radio transmitters designed to push such
    spaceships around. With the rotation of the galaxies in which these
    transmitters are located, the transmitter-beams sweep across the
    heavens. Occasionally, one washes over Earth, producing an FRB.
    3)具体来说,那两位讨论者认为,(这篇杂谈即将宣布在《天体物历史学期刊通信》上),“
    快速射电暴”大概会由推进那些飞船的极品巨大的收音机发射器产生。随着那么些发射器所在星系的团团转,发射波束扫过天空。
    偶然间在那之中一束扫过地球,发生了贰遍快速射电暴。

  4. This idea is not completely mad. Human rocket scientists have toyed
    with something similar, in order to overcome one of the biggest
    problems of spaceship design: that a craft propelled by a rocket
    motor must carry its fuel with it. Fuel has mass. That mass must be
    moved by more fuel—which adds more mass to the craft, which thus
    needs still more fuel. And so on. For this reason, 90% or more of a
    conventional rocket’s launch mass is its fuel.
    4)那种想法并非全盘异想天开。人类的运载火箭化学家曾考虑过类似的动静,为了制服一个飞船设计最大的难点:火箭外燃机拉动的飞机必须引导燃料。燃料有品质。有品质就必须由更加多的燃料去拉动——那使飞机扩展了更加多的材质,由此供给更加多的燃料。以此类推。
    由此,9/10或越来越多的例行火箭的发出质量是其燃料。

  5. It is possible, though, to separate the fuel from the craft. That is
    the principle behind a solar sail, which employs the gentle
    pressure exerted by sunlight to propel a vehicle. A nippier
    alternative is to use focused light beams to provide the pressure.
    Yuri Milner, a Russian billionaire with a long-standing interest in
    science, is paying for research into such a machine. He proposes to
    drive a tiny probe to Alpha Centauri, one of Earth’s nearest
    stellar neighbours, using banks of powerful lasers.

solar sail:
太阳帆(也号称光帆,越发是它选取来源于阳光以外的光源时)是使用巨大的薄膜镜片,以阳光的辐射压做为太空船推进力的一种陈设。辐射压不仅一点都相当小,而且与阳光距离的平方成反比,但分化于火箭的是,太阳帆不须要燃料。推进力即便相当的小,不过只要太阳继续照耀着,太阳帆就能继续运维。——维基百科

5)不过,从飞机分离燃料是唯恐的。那就是光帆背后的法则,它采取阳光施加的四之日压力牵动交通工具发展。1个更快的取代方案是运用聚焦光束提供压力。Urey·米尔纳是1位长期以来对科学感兴趣的俄罗斯亿万富翁,他正投资商量这种机械。
他提议应用强劲的激光去驱动2个微型探测器外出半人马座阿尔法星,地球近年来的恒星邻居之一。

  1. Dr Lingam and Dr Loeb suggest FRBs might be the result of vastly
    bigger takes on the same principle, except that they employ the
    radio portions of the electromagnetic spectrum rather than
    visible light. The two researchers have worked out what would be
    needed if the transmitter behind such a burst were solar-powered.
    They calculate that the amount of sunlight falling onto a planet
    about twice the size of Earth, and at the right distance from its
    star to have liquid water on its surface, would yield enough energy
    to accelerate a spaceship weighing a million tonnes or so to a speed
    close to that of light before the propulsion beam became too
    attenuated to propel it any faster. This would be perfect for
    ferrying large numbers of beings from one star system to another, as
    long as there was an equivalent device at the other end to slow the
    craft down again.
    6)林加姆大学生和勒布大学生认为“神速射电暴”大概是选用同一的规律形成的大得多得多的结果,但其应用了电磁波频谱的收音机部分而非可知光。那两位钻探人口现已总结出,要是在那样一阵突发今后的发射器是太阳能驱动的,哪些东西是必需的。他们总计出落在一颗体积约为地球两倍的行星上的太阳光总量,并且其恒星距其离开适中以使其外表上有液态水,将生出丰富的能量来增长速度一艘重达一百万吨左右的飞船,在促进光束变得太弱而不能促进其速度更快以前使其接近于光速。那对于从三个星系到另二个星系运送大批量生物会是全面包车型客车(格局),只要在另一端有1个使飞船减速的均等装置。

  2. To check whether such a machine is technologically plausible, the
    two researchers calculated that the necessary planet-sized array of
    radio transmitters could be kept cool by nothing more exotic than
    ordinary water. So, as far as they can see, while building such a
    machine would be a heroic feat of engineering, nothing in the laws
    of physics actually forbids it.
    7)为了印证那种机械在技术上是不是站得住,两位讨论员总结出供给的收音机发射器的行星大小的阵列能够用一般水土保持持低温而不供给此外外来的物质。
    所以,就他们所知,尽管建造那样一台机器将是工程上的奋勇壮举,实际在物管理学规律上是完全可行的。

  3. Saying that the features of FRBs are consistent with their being
    signs of an alien space-propulsion system is not, of course, the
    same as saying that this is what they actually are. One early
    explanation of pulsars—regular cosmic radio signals first
    observed in 1967 was that they were alien radio beacons. They later
    turned out to be caused by fast-spinning neutron stars. For
    physicists, though, that explanation was almost as interesting. A
    neutron star is one whose protons and electrons have merged with
    each other to create neutrons. These, together with the star’s
    pre-existing neutrons, result in an object that has no atoms in it.
    Since atoms are composed mostly of empty space a neutron star,
    instead of being star size, is just a few kilometres across. If FRBs
    turn out to be even a fraction as curious as that, most astronomers
    would forgive them for not being artificial.
    8)当然,说“连忙射电暴”的性状与外星人空间推进系统的注明是千篇一律的,不对等说它们其实是如出一辙的。脉冲星——在一九六八年第三回观测到的常规宇宙射邮电通讯号的2个最初解释是,它们是外星人有线电发送器。它们后来认证是由高速旋转的中子星致使的。然则,对于物教育学家来说,那种解释大约一致有趣。中子星是一种由质子和电子互动结合发生中子的星星。(中子星里,压力是如此之大,电子被缩减到原子核中,同质子四之日为中子,使原子变得仅由中子组成。——译者按)那一个,连同恒星中先期存在的中子,导致了一个未曾原子的实体。由于原子主要由空间隙组成,中子星(密度非常的大)只有几英里的直径,而非恒星那么大。若是“快捷射电暴”最后被验证只是二个同那无差异令人好奇的小部分,大部分天史学家都会原谅它们不是(外星)人造的。(意思是不怕FRBs不是外星人造成的,对大自然物教育学家来说无差别有价值,正如中子星曾被认为是外星人有线电发射器一样——编者按)


一 、来自天空的一批奇怪信号可能,只是也许,是外星人的标志。

② 、那对于从3个星系到另几个星系运送多量生物会是一揽子的(格局),只要在另一端有1个使飞船减速的如出一辙装置。

叁 、所以,就他们所知,纵然建造如此一台机械将是工程上的无畏壮举,实际在物医学规律上是一点一滴可行的。


原稿出处:经济学人杂志

翻译:追梦心;校对:七呵夫;编辑:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转发及用于别的商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由本身承担。本人同意简书平台在接获有关文章权人的通报后,删除文章。

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