天文学2017年学界的8独故事带为咱们什么样单词

By admin in 天文学 on 2018年10月8日

Eight amazing science stories of 2017

选自BBC, 英文原文见http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-41972289

决不字字句句的翻,有翻译,有分解,有想象。

START:

Story 1:Star crash

骨子里对为可以就此浪漫来诠释,引力波就像是激素……

In 2017, scientists detected Einstein’s gravitational waves from a
new source -the collision of two dead stars, or neutron stars.
The first direct detection of these waves was announced in 2016,
when the Advanced LIGO laboratories described the warping of space
from the merger of two distant black holes. The result was
hailed as the starting point for a new branch of astronomy, using
gravitational waves to collect data about distant phenomena.

Telescopes from all over the world captured details of the neutron
star merger
as it unfolded. The outburst took place in a galaxy
located roughly a thousand billion, billion km away in the
Constellation Hydra. Some of the facts about these cataclysmic
events
are staggering. For example, neutron stars are so dense
that a teaspoonful would weigh a billion tonnes. The team was also able
to confirm that these collisions lead to the production of the
gold and platinum that exists in the Universe.

于咱们来反而推一下。当礼堂想起结婚进行曲,当新郎与新娘交换戒指的当儿,顿一下,这朵金(gold)或者铂金(platinum)的指环竟来自古老宇宙的爱意。这久违的爱意来于少数颗被子星(neutron
star)的热烈(cataclysmic
events)碰撞(collision),他们停在长蛇星座(Constellation
Hydra),如同封建时代的自由恋爱,他们之齐心协力(merger)是爆炸性的(outburst)。在她们之前,其他的休戚与共都是黑洞(black
hole)的融合,如同封建时代的老人媒妁之大概。在挺远好远之地方的我们,试图去研究黑洞或者中子星的情意,去追他们释放出来的荷尔蒙–引力波(gravitational
wave)。2016年,我们就探测(detection)到黑洞之荷尔蒙的时空之涟漪(warping
of space), 这同一意识开辟了天文学的初领域(a new branch of
astronomy),利用引力波去收集来自长期天际的数。2017年,当真爱来临,我们打望远镜(telescope),收获了再多老的柔情之密码。

Story 2:Cassini’s final bow

卡西尼飞船,粉身碎骨尤记使命

The Cassini spacecraft arrived in the Saturn system in 2004. In
the 13 years it was operational it transformed our understanding of the
ringed planet and its moons. It discovered geysers spewing
water-ice
out into space from a sub-surface ocean on the icy
satellite of Enceladus
, spied seas and lakes of methane on
Saturn’s biggest moon Titan and watched as a giant storm encircled
Saturn.

But with its fuel tanks running low, Nasa decided to destroy the
satellite in Saturn’s clouds rather than see it collide with a
potential target in the search for life, such as Enceladus, and
contaminate it with terrestrial microbes. On 15 September,
Cassini hurtled into the giant plant’s atmosphere and was torn
apart
. But it still managed to return data to Earth from its dive
towards destruction
.

美国宇航局制造的卡西尼飞船(Cassini
spacecraft)曾吃2004年启幕探究土星以及土星的卫星等(saturn
system),小卡改变了咱们针对带动环行星(ringed
planet)及其卫星(moons)的体会。小卡于2017年9月15日为止了投机之重任,我们好像看小卡在舞台上于众人深深的养育了扳平躬(final
bow),依依不舍的告别了舞台。在小卡努力干活之即刻13年被,他意识了土卫二虽然被冰层覆盖(icy
satellite of Enceladus),但该非法海洋(sub-surface
ocean)之喷泉却非鸣金收兵喷射着水冰(geysers spewing
water-ice),他发现了甲烷(seas and lakes
of methane)湖,他尚偶尔遭遇了受狂飙袭击(encircled)的土星。

“嘀嘀嘀……”,燃料告急(fuel tanks running
low),为了避免小卡在寻生命时误撞(collide
with)到土星家族的成员,继而令他们受地微生物(terrestrial
microbes)所污染(contaminate),小卡冲入(hurtle
into)土星大气层,支离破碎(torn
apart),即便如此,小卡还是得了其的尾声使命,在生死瞬间(from its dive
towards destruction)成功为地球传输了数。

Story 3:Paris pull-out

美国最终和巴黎天气协定分开

While he was on the campaign trail, Donald Trump said he would
“cancel” the Paris climate agreement, taking the US out of the
deal
. But after winning the US election in November of that year, he
made few public pronouncements on the topic of climate change.
Reports emerged that Mr Trump’s advisers were split on the issue,
prompting some commentators to wonder whether the President might be
convinced to stay in the process.

However, on 1 June, President Trump held a press conference in the White
House’s Rose Garden to announce America’s withdrawal. Mr Trump
said: “In order to fulfil my solemn duty to protect America and its
citizens, the United States will withdraw from the Paris
climate accord
but begin negotiations to re-enter either the Paris
accord or a really entirely new transaction on terms that are fair
to the United States.”

As expected, the reaction from Democrats and other world leaders was
damning. Former US President Barack Obama accused the Trump
administration of “rejecting the future“, while former Secretary of
State John Kerry called the decision a “gross abdication of
leadership
“.

特朗普竞选美国管辖时(on the campaign trail)就于同她发生分手(out of the
deal),特朗普上任后分别闹剧也已销声匿迹(made few public
pronouncements),特朗普的亲友团一直针对它争议不断(spit on the
issue),她就是同美国最终分离(pull-out)的巴黎天气协定(Paris climate
accord/agreement)。整个分手过程被特朗普的根本词即是“公平”(fair),他扬言没有“公平”就从未复合。分手(withdrawal/withdraw)后,对特朗普的谴责声不决,有人说特朗普短视(rejecting
the future),有人说他彻底放弃了领导权(gross abdiction of leadership)。

Story 4:Multiple “Earths”

人类发现了差不多个像样地行星

Of the 3,500 planets now documented to exist beyond our Solar
System
, some are pretty weird. For starters, there’s J1407b, a
distant world with rings that are 200 times larger than the ones
around Saturn.

But this year, astronomers discovered a planetary system with seven
Earth-sized planets. What’s more, these worlds seem to be locked in a
strange “resonance” as they orbit their host star. Intriguingly,
three of the planets are in the habitable zone, where water can remain
liquid on the surface. And where there’s water, there is at least a
chance for life.

咱曾经发现了3500发系外(beyongd our Solar
System)行星,某些行星对我们的话颇为诡异,比如,J1407b行星的光环(rings)比土星还很200倍。但今年天文学家的博更老为往年,他们发觉了太阳系外的7发如地球般大小的行星,这些行星不仅尺寸与地相似,他们呢一样围绕在雷同发恒星转(orbit
their host star),不仅如此,7颗行星中的3粒还设有着液态水。

Story 5:Recent relative

人类发现了重新靠近之“血亲”

In July, researchers unveiled fossils of five early humans found in
North Africa that showed our species – Homo sapiens – emerged
at least 100,000 years earlier than previously recognised. The finds
suggested that our species did not evolve in a single “cradle” in
East Africa. Instead, modern humans may have been evolving in the same
direction all over the continent.

And there was more big news in human evolution this year. When, in
2015, scientists unveiled the remains of 15 partial skeletons belonging
to a new species of human, it made headlines around the world. At the
time, researchers had been unable to say for sure how old the specimens
of Homo naledi were, but some primitive traits suggested they
could be as much as three million years in age.

This year, team leader Lee Berger announced the remains were just
200,000-300,000 years old. The findings suggested that far from being an
ancestor of present-day people, Homo naledi may even have
encountered very early members of our own species – Homo sapiens.

本年7月,科研人员在北非意识了5有着“智人”(Homo
sapiens)化石(fossils),这同发现叫“智人”的来源于(emerged)时间吃刷新,比之前所当的年月早了足足100,000年;起源(evolve)地吧同时深受刷新,从东非扩张至北非,按照这同方向推测,整个非洲大陆都产生或变为“智人”的起源地。

上文只是抛砖引玉,人类衍化(human
evolution)研究在2017年生再震惊之觉察,2015年科学家通过15独具古人类残骸(remains)宣布发现了人类的近期亲–Homo
naledi,科学家们这无法准确说发生Homo
naledi的史年代,但通过一些骨干线索(primitive
traits),科学家们想这些尸骨或就产生300万年的历史了,但今年,科学家等推翻了前头的推测,他们认为2015年察觉的僵尸距今止来20暨30万年之史,所以,Homo
naledi并非人类漫长的祖辈(ancestor),他们异常有或同“智人”属于同一时期。

Story 6:Dark skies

得意忘形全日食遮天蔽日

On 21 August, a giant shadow cast by the Moon swept across America,
marking the first total solar eclipse since the country’s founding
in 1776 where totality made exclusive landfall in the US. It was
also 99 years since a solar eclipse had crossed from the west to the
east coast.

Millions of people gathered along the eclipse’s path to witness the rare
astronomical event.

And what an awesome event it was. Reporting from Madras, Oregon, the
BBC’s Pallab Ghosh said: “You can see that it’s quarter past 10 in the
morning, but it seems like night-time. We’re just a few seconds away
from the total eclipse… it looks like a smiley face in the sky.”

After totality had passed, he added: “I got goosebumps; it just
feels like a completely dream-like state.”

2017年出现了只有属于美国(exculsive landfall)的全日食(totality/total solar
eclipse),BBC记者的有限个用词传达出圈日食的体会:鸡皮疙瘩(goosebumps)和像梦境(dream-like
state)。

Story 7:Visitor from beyond

球之异的相关外小行星

Though scientists had been predicting for years that we would be visited
by an asteroid from interstellar space, 2017 was the first time we
spotted one. Discovered by a team using Hawaii’s Pan-Starrs telescope in
October, they were soon sure that the object’s speed and trajectory
indicated an origin outside our Solar System. Named ‘Oumuamua, after
the Hawaiian for “a messenger from afar arriving first”, the object
quickly became the subject of an observing campaign with some of the
most powerful telescopes in the world.

In many respects, it turned out to be not dissimilar to objects known
from the furthest reaches of our Solar System – so-called Kuiper
Belt
objects (KBOs) – complete with a reddish hue likely resulting
from irradiation by cosmic rays over millions of years. One
aspect of this cosmic wanderer wasn’t so familiar, however: it’s shape.
Although the investigations are ongoing, ‘Oumuamua seemed to be 10 times
longer than it was wide, making it much more elongated than anything
else in our Solar System.

旷日持久星际间(interstellar
space),有一致颗小行星(asteroid)于2017年看了咱的球的家,它是咱们地球之首先各外系小行星客人,通过观察其速度及轨道(trajectory),科学家等得出这粒小行星的家世(origin)并非太阳系。从众多方来讲,这粒小行星对咱们来说并无生,它像极了柯伊伯带(Kuiper
Belt:太阳系在海王星轨道之外的黄道面附近、天体密集的中空圆盘状区域)的星,
它带红衣(complete with a reddish
hue),这身红衣很有或是几百万年来宇宙射线(cosmic
rays)辐射(irradiation)的结果。但从外形来讲,这颗小行星当之无愧于它上外来东西的家世,它的尺寸是开间之10加倍,这正如咱太阳系外星体都再也修长(elongated)。

Story 8:Giant iceberg

壮的冰山逃逸

One of the biggest icebergs ever recorded broke away from
Antarctica’s Larsen C ice shelf in July. But scientists had been
following the development of a large crack for upwards of a decade.
The giant block was estimated to cover an area of roughly 6,000 sq km –
about a quarter the size of Wales.

The calving of bergs at the forward edge of the shelf is a very
natural behaviour. However, scientists think that Larsen C is now at its
smallest extent since the end of the last Ice Age, around 11,700 years
ago. Future studies will be needed to understand how the shelf is
responding to a warming climate.

天下转移暖给南极拉动了全新挑战。一幢高大冰山(iceberg)于2017年7月跟南极(Antarctica)大陆冰架(ice
shelf)Larsen C脱离,
这巨大的断(crack/calving)冰山是威尔士面积的四分之一,举中国城市例子的说话,这跑的冰山面积已经接近受一个上海市的面积了。

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