定语从句

By admin in 亚洲必赢官网app on 2019年1月25日

对此老师们的话

乌克兰语课堂上

“从句”

是一个必讲的重点知识点

外文助教联盟每周日

“专项语法难题探微”栏目

(以下简称“探微”)

首期知识点为大家带来了

定语从句

(共八讲)

前四期内容为(可点击查看)

1.并列成分公共前置定语

2.基本词与其前置定语的相间现象

3.多重定语从句的档次和特性

4.指点定语从句的 “ 介词 + 关系代词 ” 结构

本期第四讲——

定语从句与分词短语的更换

定于

本期内容导图(点击查阅大图)

菲律宾语的表明形式是格外灵活而又多种多样的。人们时时用各类差其他款式、措辞去代表同一个意味。

爱沙尼亚语定语从句与分词短语的转换就是里面之一,那就是说,在表述同一个意思时常可用定语从句和分词短语三种分裂的表明格局。

不过,大家不能看出定语从句,就可随心所欲将其改为分词短语作定语的语句,而要视意况而定。

以下从多少个方面对定语从句与分词短语的变换作些介绍。

A

主动式定语从句与分词短语的更换

在主动式定语从句中,如涉嫌代词作从句中的主语,其谓语是一个行为动词时,在偏下情形下,一般都可变换为相应的分词短语。

a.定语从句的谓语动词和主句的谓语动词在时光上是如出一辙的,那第一见于三种情状:

一是主从句的谓语动词都是一般过去时

二是主从句的谓语动词都是一般现在时

例如 :

He used to live in the house which faced south.

→ He used to live in the house facing south .

他过去时常住在面往北里的那间房

The students who study here are mostly from peasant families.

→ The students studying here are mostly from peasant families.

在此地上学的学童半数以上是老乡家庭出身。

b.从句的谓语动词是进展时态,主句的谓语动词可以是一般现在时、过去时或任何时态。

例如 :

The man that is talking with Mary is my brother.

→ The man talking with Mary is my brother .

跟玛丽(玛丽(Mary))谈话的足够人是自家表哥

Come tomorrow and show your visa to the man who will be at that desk.

→ Come tomorrow and show your visa to the man sitting at that desk .

您明日来,把你的签证给坐在那么些案子边的那家伙看看。

c.从句和主句的动作的年华府是泛指的。

例如 :

China is a developing socialist country which belongs to the third
world.

→China is a developing socialist country belonging to the third world .

神州是一个属于第三世界的发展中的社会主义国家。

Astronomers are those who study these heavenly bodies.

→Astronomers are those studying these heavenly bodies .

天文学家就是那一个钻探天体的人。

d.假设从句的谓语动词后没有作状语的介词短语,或者从句中衹有谓语动词,转换后,现在分词常置于宗旨词此前。

例如:

The countries which are developing should get united.

→ The developing countries should get united .

前进中的国家相应团结起来

Dogs that bark seldom bite.

→ Barking dogs seldom bite .

爱叫的狗很少咬人。

e.若是定语从句的谓语有意味程度、时间和格局的副词或副词短语修饰语,那时可转换为带那种副词的今日分词作焦点词的放权修饰语,其副词和现行分词之间必须用连字号连结起来。

例如:

This is a river which flows fast.

→ This is a fast-flowing river.

那是一条急流的河。

The peasants who work hard deserve such rewards.

→  The hard-working peasants deserve such rewards.

那么些辛苦劳动的农民应该取得那样的酬劳。

We must decrease the costs which always increase.

→ We must decrease the always-increasing costs .

俺们不可以不压缩这一个总是上涨的资费。

f.如定语从句中的谓语动词只带一个经常名词作宾语,那时从句除可一向转换为分词短语作前置定语外,还可变换为带那種名词的明天分词作定语,其名词和今天分词之间必须用连字符。

试比较:

He spent his childhood in the old society which ate men.

→ He spent his childhood in the old society eating men.

/He spent his childhood in the men-eating old society.

他在吃人的旧社会度 过了他的童年 。

The south of Jiangsu is an area which grows rice.

→ The south of Jiangsu is rice-growing area. /The south of Jiangsu is an
area growing rice ,

吉林南方是产稻区。

B

被动式定语从句与分词短语的变换

a.即使被动式定语从句中隐含作状语的介词短语,那种定语从句可转换为过去分词作原定语从句中心词的前置定语,过去分词所代表的小时一般在谓语动词往日,其动作有所完毕意义。

例如 :

Do you know the student who was praised by the teacher?

→ Do you know the student Praised by the teacher?

你认识那位受 过老师赞叹的学生吗 ?

The Fengqing was a freighter that was built in China and was fitted
entirely with Chinese- made equipment.

→ The Fengqing was a freighter built in China and fitted entirely with
Chinese-made equipment

风庆轮是华夏制作的还要完全是中华配备的一艘轮船。

在定语从句表示一种反复现身的平日性动作或气象时 ,
也可更换为过去分词短语作前置定语 , 那时过去分词 只是只是表示被动意义。

例如 :

Many kin of ants milk little bugs that are called ant cows.

→ Many kinds of ants milk little bugs called ant cows.

很多种蚂蚁会吮吸一种叫做蚁牛的小虫子的汁水吃。

b.假诺被动式定语从句中的谓语动词是进行时可更换为现在分词被动形式作前置定语。

例如:

The matter which is being discussed is of importance.

→ The matter being discussed is of importance .
正在谈论的那种事情是很重点的。

The house which was being built has been completed.

→ The house being built has been completed .

当时在建的那幢房子现在已竣工了。

若果被动式定语从句中的动词是做到时态,既可改为过去分词作前置定语,亦可改为明日分词的达成式作前置定语。

例如:

Here is an experiment which has been done this year.

→ Here is an experiment done this year.

/Here is an experiment having been done this year.

那是现年已到位的三次的实验。

如若被动式定语从句的动词是将来时,则用不定式的被动式来表示.

c.假使被动式定语从句中唯有”be+过去分词”,转换后的过去分词在多数情况下既可放在它所修饰的名词从前,亦可位于所修饰的名词之后,前者比后者常见。

例如:

He has memorized the words which were underlined.

→ He has memorized the underlined words .

/ He has memorized the words underlined .

他早就记住了那一个划线的单词。

从所收集的例句来看,在定语从句中的谓语动词被动式状态意义较强时,转换后的过去分词一般要放权;若其动作意义较强,或者是由于习惯的由来,则转移后的过去分词要前置。

试比较:

Soon our leaders who are respected and beloved entered the banquet hall.

→ Soon our respected and beloved leaders entered the banquet hall .

尽快大家爱慕的头子走进了客厅。

The mistakes which were found have been corrected.

→ The mistakes found have been corrected.

发觉的错误已经获取了校对。

d.倘使被动式定语从句是一个矢口否认结构,可变换为一个带否定前缀的过去分词作前置定语。

例如:

The substance which is not known is going to be tasted

→ The unknown substance is going to be tasted.

对不亮堂的这种物质将 要尝试一下。

The problem which was not solved has been solved.

→ The un-solved problem has been solved .

老大没有解决的题目现在早已缓解了。

如被动式定语从句中有副词,可把副词放在过去分词从前,二者作为一个完全作中央词的停放定语。

例如:

You must follow the motion which was unanimously adopted.

→ You must follow the unanimously adopted motion .

你应有坚守那么些被同样拔取的提出。

e.若是被动式定语从句中富含“by+表示一般概念的家常名词”的短语,那种by短语后的名词常同词构成复合词作原从句要旨词的放到定语。

例如:

The satellite which was made by man is going round the earth.

→ The man-made satellite is going round the earth.

人造卫星在绕着地球运转。

This is the machine which is controlled by radio. → This is the radio –
controlled machine.

那是一台由有线电控制的机器。

C

定语从句不能够更换为分词短语的气象

a.关系代词在定语从句中作主语以外的其他成分时其定语从句不可能改为分词短语。

例如 :

You’ve forgotten most of the words that you learned last year.

你已记不清了您二零一八年所学的多数单词 。

(that在从句中作宾语,从句不可能用分词来表示)

Do you know the man whose family is in Hubei? 你认识那么些家在密西西比河的人呢?

( whose在从句中作定语,不可以转换)

b.定语从句中蕴藏情态动词,不可能改成分词短语作定语。那是因为分词短语没有态度意义,不能发布说话人的情愫、态度。假如转换成分词短语,则意义大差距。

例如:

Is there anyone who can do it?

有哪个人个能做那件事呢?

( 比较 : Is there anyone doing it ?

有哪个人个在做那件事吗 ? )

Do you know the girl who can speak four foreign languages?

你认识会讲四门外语的那位姑娘吗 ?

( 比较 : Do you know the girl speaking four foreign languages ?

您认识讲四门外语的那位姑娘吗 ? )

c.
以涉及代词引导的非限定性定语从句,当提到代词指的是前方所有句子,或者指谓语的一部分等,而不是修饰某个先行词时,不可以改成分词短语作前置定语。

例如:

He finished the task in time, which was what I expected.

他按 时达成了那项任务, 这多亏大家所期待的 。

( which 指整个主句 )

He can write a letter in English,which I can’t. 他能用日语写信,我可不能。

( which 指 write a letter in English )

I asked him to lend me his new bike, which he did.

自身叫她把新车子借给我,他就借给我了。

( which 指 lend me his new bike )

情节出自(独家授权):

张鑫友. 保加利亚语语法难题探微词典[M]. 华中金融学院出版社.

正文编辑:乔伊斯(Joyce)(Joyce)

编辑助理:Jane

下期预先报告

意国语语法之“定语从句”(六)

定语从句的非定语意义

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