张鑫友:英语语法之“定语从句”(五)

By admin in 亚洲必赢官网app on 2018年10月4日

于老师等吧

英语课堂上

“从句”

举凡一个必讲的重要性知识点

外国语教师联盟每周一

“专项语法难题探微”栏目

(以下简称“探微”)

首欲知识点为大家带来了

定语从句

(共八讲)

前四期内容呢(可点击查看)

1.并列成分公共后置定语

2.为主词以及该后置定语的隔现象

3.大多更定语从句之类型与特征

4.引导定语从句之 “ 介词 + 关系代词 ” 结构

本期第四称——

定语从句与分词短语的变换

定于

本期内容导图(点击查阅大图)

英语的表达方式是非常灵活而与此同时多种多样的。人们常常为此各种不同之形式、措辞去代表和一个意。

英语定语从句与分词短语的易就是里有,这就是说,在表述以及一个意时常可用定语从句和分词短语两种不同之表达方式。

只是,我们无能够观看定语从句,就不过随便拿那更改呢分词短语作定语的句子,而使探望情况只要早晚。

以下从三单方面对定语从句与分词短语的转换作些介绍。

A

主动式定语从句与分词短语的易

于主动式定语从句被,如涉嫌代词作于句被之主语,其谓语是一个表现动词时,在偏下状况下,一般还只是更换为相应的分词短语。

a.定语从句的谓语动词和主句的谓语动词在时间上是相同的,这要表现被简单种植情形:

同一凡主从句之谓语动词都是一般过去每每

亚凡是预示从句的谓语动词都是一般现在时常

例如 :

He used to live in the house which faced south.

→ He used to live in the house facing south .

他过去常常住在面向南里的那里面房

The students who study here are mostly from peasant families.

→ The students studying here are mostly from peasant families.

每当此地上学之学生大部分凡是农家家出身。

b.于句之谓语动词是展开时态,主句的谓语动词可以是形似现在时常、过去每每要么其他时态。

例如 :

The man that is talking with Mary is my brother.

→ The man talking with Mary is my brother .

跟玛丽说的深人是本身哥

Come tomorrow and show your visa to the man who will be at that desk.

→ Come tomorrow and show your visa to the man sitting at that desk .

乃明天来,把你的签证给坐于异常案子边的那么个人看看。

c.于句和主句的动作的辰还是泛指的。

例如 :

China is a developing socialist country which belongs to the third
world.

→China is a developing socialist country belonging to the third world .

中原凡是一个属于第三世界的上进中之社会主义国家。

Astronomers are those who study these heavenly bodies.

→Astronomers are those studying these heavenly bodies .

天文学家就是那些研究天体的总人口。

d.如果从句之谓语动词后并未犯状语的介词短语,或者从句被衹有谓语动词,转换后,现在分词常放中心词之前。

例如:

The countries which are developing should get united.

→ The developing countries should get united .

腾飞中之国应该团结起来

Dogs that bark seldom bite.

→ Barking dogs seldom bite .

轻给的狗非常少咬人。

e.如果定语从句的谓语有代表程度、时间和办法的副词或符合词短语修饰语,这时可转移为牵动这种副词的现在分词作中心词的嵌入修饰语,其副词和当今分词之间必须用连字号连结起来。

例如:

This is a river which flows fast.

→ This is a fast-flowing river.

当时是一律长达急流的江湖。

The peasants who work hard deserve such rewards.

→  The hard-working peasants deserve such rewards.

这些辛勤劳动的农民应赢得这样的报酬。

We must decrease the costs which always increase.

→ We must decrease the always-increasing costs .

我们须减少那些总是上升的用。

f.如定语从句被之谓语动词只带一个日常名词作宾语,这时由句除可径直换为分词短语作后置定语外,还而换为牵动这種名词的今日分词作定语,其名词和现行分词之间要用连字符。

试比较:

He spent his childhood in the old society which ate men.

→ He spent his childhood in the old society eating men.

/He spent his childhood in the men-eating old society.

他在凭着人之原来社会度 过了他的幼时 。

The south of Jiangsu is an area which grows rice.

→ The south of Jiangsu is rice-growing area. /The south of Jiangsu is an
area growing rice ,

江苏南部是产稻区。

B

被动式定语从句与分词短语的易

a.如果被动式定语从句被寓作状语的介词短语,这种定语从句可易为过去分词作原定语从句中心词之后置定语,过去分词所代表的工夫一般在叫做语动词之前,其动作拥有完成意义。

例如 :

Do you know the student who was praised by the teacher?

→ Do you know the student Praised by the teacher?

公认识那位受 过教师表扬的生吗 ?

The Fengqing was a freighter that was built in China and was fitted
entirely with Chinese- made equipment.

→ The Fengqing was a freighter built in China and fitted entirely with
Chinese-made equipment

风庆轮是中国打造的以完全是华夏装备的平艘轮船。

于定语从句表示同样种植反复出现的经常性动作要状态时 ,
也只是变换为过去分词短语作后置定语 , 这时过去分词 只是只表示被动意义。

例如 :

Many kin of ants milk little bugs that are called ant cows.

→ Many kinds of ants milk little bugs called ant cows.

众多种蚂蚁会吮吸一种名叫蚁牛之小虫子的汁吃。

b.如果被动式定语从句被的谓语动词是展开经常可换为今日分词被动形式作后置定语。

例如:

The matter which is being discussed is of importance.

→ The matter being discussed is of importance .
正以谈论的那种事情是雅重大的。

The house which was being built has been completed.

→ The house being built has been completed .

旋即在建的那所房屋现在已完工了。

若果吃动式定语从句被之动词是好时态,既可是改吧过去分词作后置定语,亦不过转也今日分词的到位式作后置定语。

例如:

Here is an experiment which has been done this year.

→ Here is an experiment done this year.

/Here is an experiment having been done this year.

马上是今年曾经到位的平差的尝试。

假如给动式定语从句的动词是他日时常,则用非定式的被动式来表示.

c.如果被动式定语从句被只有”be+过去分词”,转换后底过去分词在大部分状态下既可是在她所修饰的名词之前,亦可位于所修饰的名词之后,前者较继承者常见。

例如:

He has memorized the words which were underlined.

→ He has memorized the underlined words .

/ He has memorized the words underlined .

他都记住了那些划线的单词。

由所搜集的例句来拘禁,在定语从句被之谓语动词被动式状态意义比较强时,转换后底过去分词一般如果置;若那动作意义比较强,或者是由习惯的原故,则转移后底过去分词要后置。

试比较:

Soon our leaders who are respected and beloved entered the banquet hall.

→ Soon our respected and beloved leaders entered the banquet hall .

抢咱尊敬的头目走上前了客厅。

The mistakes which were found have been corrected.

→ The mistakes found have been corrected.

察觉的一无是处都获取了正。

d.如果被动式定语从句是一个矢口否认结构,可易为一个带否定前缀的过去分词作前置定语。

例如:

The substance which is not known is going to be tasted

→ The unknown substance is going to be tasted.

本着不亮的那种物质将 要尝试一下。

The problem which was not solved has been solved.

→ The un-solved problem has been solved .

很没解决的问题现在就缓解了。

若吃动式定语从句被起副词,可把副词放在过去分词之前,二者作为一个整作中心词的坐定语。

例如:

You must follow the motion which was unanimously adopted.

→ You must follow the unanimously adopted motion .

你当仍大为同采纳的建议。

e.如果被动式定语从句被蕴含“by+表示一般概念的一般性名词”的短语,这种by短语后的名词常和词做复合词作原从句中心词的搁定语。

例如:

The satellite which was made by man is going round the earth.

→ The man-made satellite is going round the earth.

人造卫星在缠绕在地球运转。

This is the machine which is controlled by radio. → This is the radio –
controlled machine.

立即是一律玉由无线电控制的机器。

C

定语从句不可知换为分词短语的状态

a.关系代词在定语从句被作主语以外的其余成分时其定语从句不可知更改也分词短语。

例如 :

You’ve forgotten most of the words that you learned last year.

若已记不清了您去年所学的大部分单词 。

(that在打句中作宾语,从句不可知用分词来代表)

Do you know the man whose family is in Hubei? 你认识好小于湖北底口乎?

( whose在打句被犯定语,不克转换)

b.定语从句被隐含情态动词,不克转成为分词短语作定语。这是盖分词短语没有态度意义,不克表达提人的真情实意、态度。如果换成分词短语,则意义大不相同。

例如:

Is there anyone who can do it?

生哪个个能做这档子事吗?

( 比较 : Is there anyone doing it ?

来哪个个当开那么件事乎 ? )

Do you know the girl who can speak four foreign languages?

公认识会讲话四门外语的那位姑娘吗 ?

( 比较 : Do you know the girl speaking four foreign languages ?

而认识称四派别外语的那位姑娘吗 ? )

c.
以干代词引导的非限定性定语从句,当提到代词指的凡前所有句子,或者指谓语的等同片等,而未是修饰某个先行词时,不能够改变成为分词短语作后置定语。

例如:

He finished the task in time, which was what I expected.

他按照 时成功了那起任务, 这多亏我们所期望的 。

( which 指整个主句 )

He can write a letter in English,which I can’t. 他能就此英语写信,我而免可知

( which 指 write a letter in English )

I asked him to lend me his new bike, which he did.

自家为他将新车子借为自己,他尽管借给自家了。

( which 指 lend me his new bike )

内容来(独家授权):

张鑫友. 英语语法难题探微词典[M]. 华中师范大学出版社.

本文编辑:Joyce

修助理:Jane

下期主

英语语法之“定语从句”(六)

定语从句之非定语意义

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